SELECT within SELECT Tutorial/zh

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name國家名continent洲份area面積 population人口gdp國民生產總值
AlbaniaEurope28748 2831741 12960000000
AlgeriaAfrica2381741 37100000 188681000000
AndorraEurope46878115 3712000000
AngolaAfrica1246700 20609294 100990000000

Using nested SELECT



列出每個國家的名字 name,當中人口 population 是高於俄羅斯'Russia'的人口。

world(name, continent, area, population, gdp)

SELECT name FROM world
  WHERE population >
     (SELECT population FROM world
      WHERE name='Romania')
SELECT name FROM world
  WHERE population >
     (SELECT population FROM world
      WHERE name='Russia')

Show the countries in Europe with a per capita GDP greater than 'United Kingdom'.

The per capita GDP is the gdp/population
SELECT name FROM world
  WHERE continent='Europe' AND gdp/population >
     (SELECT gdp/population FROM world
      WHERE name='United Kingdom')

List the name and continent of countries in the continents containing either Argentina or Australia. Order by name of the country.

SELECT name,continent
FROM world
WHERE continent IN (
  SELECT continent
  FROM world
  WHERE name IN ('Australia','Argentina'))

Which country has a population that is more than Canada but less than Poland? Show the name and the population.

SELECT name,population FROM world
WHERE population BETWEEN
(SELECT population+1 FROM world WHERE name='Canada')
(SELECT population-1 FROM world WHERE name='Poland')

Germany (population 80 million) has the largest population of the countries in Europe. Austria (population 8.5 million) has 11% of the population of Germany.

Show the name and the population of each country in Europe. Show the population as a percentage of the population of Germany.

You can use the function ROUND to remove the decimal places.
You can use the function CONCAT to add the percentage symbol.
SELECT name,
   CONCAT(ROUND(100*population/(SELECT population FROM world WHERE name='Germany')),'%')
FROM world
WHERE continent='Europe'

To get a well rounded view of the important features of SQL you should move on to the next tutorial concerning aggregates.

To gain an absurdly detailed view of one insignificant feature of the language, read on.

We can use the word ALL to allow >= or > or < or <=to act over a list. For example, you can find the largest country in the world, by population with this query:

  FROM world
 WHERE population >= ALL(SELECT population
                           FROM world
                          WHERE population>0)

You need the condition population>0 in the sub-query as some countries have null for population.

Which countries have a GDP greater than every country in Europe? [Give the name only.] (Some countries may have NULL gdp values)

SELECT name FROM world 
  WHERE gdp > ALL
   (SELECT gdp FROM world
    WHERE continent = 'Europe' 
      AND gdp IS NOT NULL)

We can refer to values in the outer SELECT within the inner SELECT. We can name the tables so that we can tell the difference between the inner and outer versions.

Find the largest country (by area) in each continent, show the continent, the name and the area:

SELECT continent, name, population FROM world x
  WHERE population >= ALL
    (SELECT population FROM world y
        WHERE y.continent=x.continent
          AND population>0)
SELECT continent, name, area 
 FROM world x
  WHERE area >= ALL
    (SELECT area FROM world y
        WHERE y.continent=x.continent
         and area > 0 )

List each continent and the name of the country that comes first alphabetically.

SELECT continent,name FROM world x
  WHERE <= ALL (
    SELECT name FROM world y
     WHERE x.continent=y.continent)

Difficult Questions That Utilize Techniques Not Covered In Prior Sections

Find the continents where all countries have a population <= 25000000. Then find the names of the countries associated with these continents. Show name, continent and population.

SELECT name,continent,population FROM world x
  WHERE 25000000 >= ALL (
    SELECT population FROM world y
     WHERE x.continent=y.continent
       AND y.population>0)

Some countries have populations more than three times that of any of their neighbours (in the same continent). Give the countries and continents.

SELECT name, continent FROM world x WHERE
 population > ALL
 (SELECT population*3 FROM world y
 WHERE y.continent = x.continent
 AND !=